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  Diazepam

Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names


Systems Central nervous system
Category CNS Depressant (Benzodiazepine)


Pharmacokinetics

It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal small intestine. It is extensively distributed in the body. It is metabolised in the liver. It is transformed to clinically active metabolites. It has a long 1/2 life and may persist in the body for weeks. Clearance is reduced in liver damage.It produces a brief initial phase of strong action followed by prolonged milder effect due to a two phase plasma concentration decay curve.



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Indications

Diazepam is used to relieve nervousness or anxiety. It is preferred in acute panic states and anxiety associated with organic disease. It is used in the treatment of insomnia . However, if used regularly (eg. every day) for insomnia, it is usually not effective for more than a few weeks. Diazepam, is also used to help relax muscles or relieve muscle spasm. Diazepam should not be used for nervousness or tension caused by the stress of day to day life.Diazepam is also used in the acute management of status epilepticus and tetanus.



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Routes of Administration and Dosage

Oral:2.5-10 mgs 2-4 times daily depending on the symptoms and severity. Maximum single dose is 10 mgs. Parenteral:2-20 mgs I.M or I.V, may be repeated every 3-4 hours, upto 100 mgs/day may be used in tetanus.



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Contra Indications

Diazepam is contraindicated in myasthenia gravis and in children under 6 months of age.



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Precautions

Precaution has to be taken in impaired renal&hepatic function, respiratry insufficiency, organic cerebral changes, elderly, psychotic patients, epileptics, pregnancy and lactation.



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Interactions

Diazepam potentiates the CNS depressant action of phenothiazines, barbiturates, MAO inhibitors and alcohol. Combination with lithium may produce hypothermia.Cimetidine reduces the clearance.



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Brand Names

Anxol (Sigma), Calmod (IDPL), Calmpose (Ranbaxy), Camrelease-TR (Natco), Centopam (Centaur), Dizep (Intas), Dizep-P (Prem Pharma), Elcion CR (Ranbaxy), Lori (Neon Labs), Paxum (East India), Peacin (LA Pharma), Placidox (Lupin), Tenil (Biological E), Trankvil (Saga Labs), Valium (Piramal Healthcare)



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Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names

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