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  Acyclovir

Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions


Systems General (Systemic)
Category Antiviral


Pharmacokinetics

Acyclovir when given orally is poorly absorbed with bio-availability of 15% to 30%. Its level in the CSF is 50% of that in the plasma.When given IV it raises the serum creatinine and urea level.It penetrates the cornea well.It is excreted unchanged in urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.Plasma half life is 2-3 hours.



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Indications

Acyclovir is used to treat viral infection due to Herpes Simplex 1 & 2 and Varicella Zoster,Ebstein-barr virus,cytomegalo virus. It is a potent drug with low toxicity. It is a life saving drug in viral encephalitis.



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Routes of Administration and Dosage

Oral dose (capsules, oral suspension, or tablets): For treatment of Herpes simplex initial dose is 200mgs five times daily for 10 days.Herpes simplex - chronic suppressive therapy 200-400mgs 2 to 4 times daily for 12 months.Herpes zoster 800mgs 5 times daily in 4 hrs intervals for 12 months.Varicella zoster 20 mg/kg (not more than 800 mgs ) 4 times daily for 5 days.Children under 2 yrs half the dose should be given. For injection dosage form: For treatment of herpes of the genitals or mucous membranes( shingles) in Adults and children 12 years of age and older: 5 to 10 mg of acyclovir per kg of body weight, injected slowly intravenously over at least a one-hour period, and repeated every eight hours for five to ten days.Under 12 yrs:Herpes simplex encepalitis and varicella zoster infections: 500 mgs/sq.m, infused over 1 hr every 8 hrs for 7 to 10 days.For herpes genitalis 250mgs / sq .m infused over 1 hr every 8 hrs for 5 days.



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Contra Indications

Acyclovir is contraindicated in lactation, hypersensitivity, severe renal impairment, hypoxia and in neurological diseases.



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Precautions

In renal disease there may be an increase in the blood levels of acyclovir thus increasing the chance of adverse effects. In those with Nervous system disorders Acyclovir when given IV may increase the chance for neurological side effects[tremors,hallucinations,convulsions and coma]. Special precautions should be taken in pregnancy. .



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Interactions

Drugs like Carmustine, Cisplatin, Cyclosporine, Deferoxamine, Gold salts, Lithium, Methotrexate, Penicillamine, Plicamycin, Streptozocin and Tiopronin when used along with Acyclovir may increase the chance for adverse effects, especially when renal disease is present.



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Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions

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